Friday, May 22, 2020
As a society we have always been taught that murder is a crime, so why is it any different when it is a baby? Many unplanned pregnancies occur in the world every year, in fact, Ã¢â¬Å"out of 6.2 million pregnancies each year in the United States, 1.6 million end up in abortionÃ¢â¬ (Hern). Because of the numerous traumatic psychological, physical, and overall irresponsible behavior or actions constantly encouraged due to abortion, it should be banned, and forever illegal. Killing oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own fetus has been linked to psychological distress which has been channeled into many different cases of substance abuse. Ã¢â¬Å"Induced abortion has been linked to increased rates of substance abuse, especially among young womanÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"Psychological Health EffectsÃ¢â¬ ). NotÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦A person can become psychotic and begin to experience hallucinationsÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"Effects of CocaineÃ¢â¬ ). Daily experience with cocaine can drive the total dosage needed in order of effectiveness to increase majorly, while doing a tremendous amount of damage to the body itself and putting others lives at a very terrifying risk. Ã¢â¬Å"Coming down from the drug causes depression so severe that a person will do almost anything to get the drug- even commit murderÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"Effects of CocaineÃ¢â¬ ). Not only are psychological effects highly damaging while at the same time almost promising to the growing (and living) fetus but they can also hu rt the carrier. Knowing that there seems to be almost never ending amounts of psychological effects along with many others, there are also physical effects on abortion. For an example, Ã¢â¬Å"Women face a number of possible physical complications as a result of legal abortion including hemorrhage requiring transfusion, perforation of the uterus, cardiac arrest, endotoxic shock, major unintended surgery, infection resulting in hospitalization, convulsions, undiagnosed ectopic (tubal) pregnancy, cervical laceration, uterine rupture, and deathÃ¢â¬ (Hern.) Although there are many different cases of these physical effects happening throughout every single year, the amount of abortions are still increasing at a very promising high rate. Stated in a general psychology 2000 study, Ã¢â¬Å"Seventeen percent of women participating in a study on the effects of abortionShow MoreRelatedPersuasive Essay About Abortion993 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesin two peoples perspectives. The story consisted of a daughter (Deb) and motherÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective after the death of her father. The purpose of this layout is to show how they are both grieving in individual ways. Writing for the persuasive was presented as an essay on why abortion should be accessible in every country, and to also outline the shame women receive. Purpose Purpose for writing publication- Purpose for writing a real-estate article was to inform a potential buyer on the house showed. AlsoRead MoreAbortion Persuasive Essay1119 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages To begin with, there has always been an extensive issue with the topic of abortion, why? Well, itÃ¢â¬â¢s a tough subject and can get extremely emotional and very defensive. Honestly, people just need to open up their eyeÃ¢â¬â¢s and understand that its murder and not just a choice. It is murder because two can create a blessing and the choice of aborting it, is more like a sacrifice for the reason a mother canÃ¢â¬â¢t carry a baby for nine months. Whether a person is a minor, young adult, or an adult and is inRead MoreAbortion Persuasive Essay755 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesinstead these babies are torn limb by limb, burned, and many other tortuous methods to end the precious life. Abortion is murder and is not only very cruel to the unborn baby but it also harms the mother. Pro-choice is an escape from the harsh reality that a baby is being murdered, and in my eyes a life should only be terminated if God himself is ready to call them home. One reason why abortion is wrong is because they are many other safe solutions that would give the child a chance at life. AdoptionRead MorePersuasive Essay On Abortion917 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAbortions in Texas consist of ending a pregnancy of an unborn child before it can live out of the mother womb. However if the pregnancy ends not on purpose before the twenty four week mark then technically it would be considered a miscarriage. Though inducing the abortion on purpose has caused a lot of controversy over the past century. Deliberately putting people on one of two sides of this issues, of either being for it, which would be considered Pro Choice. Or in the other category of the ProRead MorePersuasive Essay On Abortion1635 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagessolve this issue the option of abortion was brought to the forefront by scientists and advocates such as Dan Savage who mentioned that abortion should be mandatory for the next 30 years in or to control the population. (Ertlet) For countri es such as the U.S. with a growth rate being 1.6%, the proposal of widespread abortion is highly recommended as mentioned by obstetricians and gynecologists. (MumfordKessel) Who now leaves the question as to if the option of abortion should be used as a means ofRead MoreAbortion Persuasive Essay804 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesfamily with someone. Often times accidents happen in which people didnÃ¢â¬â¢t plan for, and can lead to many financial problems or neglect of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s child because the parents werenÃ¢â¬â¢t prepared to be parents. This is why there should be the option of abortion. Abortion needs to be an option for everyone because it helps from long lasting mental states, infection, economical problems, and or having conceived from a non consensual circumstance. Pregnancy is a hard and unforgiving to the womanÃ¢â¬â¢s body. In factRead MorePersuasive Essay On Abortion954 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesand nations who destroy life by abortion and euthanasia are the poorest. I do not say legal or illegal, but I think that no human hand should be raised to kill life, since life is GodÃ¢â¬â¢s life in us, even in an unborn child.Ã¢â¬ Do you know what abortion really is? Abortion is the ending of pregnancy by removing a fetus or embryo before it can survive outside the uterus. Abortion seems to be more common in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society. Numerous amounts of individuals support abortion, and do not realize how it affectsRead MoreAbortion Persuasive Essay736 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesfavor of abortion rights. The decision was 7-2, it stated that it showed a Ã¢â¬Å"right of privacy.Ã¢â¬ Abortions have been performed for thousands of years all around the world, even though many women died from it. Women nowadays have a choice of whether they want to get an abortion. Abortions do come with risk, one of them being death, but women should still have a right and say what they want to do with pregnancy and not be judged by others for doing so. Today the debate across the world is if abortion shouldRead MorePersuasive Essay On Abortion1321 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagessomeone who may be suicidal or who is suicidal himself/herself. As for taking away fetusÃ¢â¬â¢ lives, the damage that abortion makes on life can be proven with the statistics. According to Casey, Ã¢â¬Å"over the past 44 years, one-sixth (60,000,000) of the American population has been killed by elective abortion. Twenty-five percent of African-Americans are killed in the womb America,Ã¢â¬ (Should Abortion Be Legal n.p.). The figure 60,000,000 is a depressing number considering that these children could have been futureRead MorePersuasive Essay On Abortion723 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagescontraception I want to discuss is sterilization. For an idea that is so broadly accepted in private, contraception certainly generates a lot of opposition when discussed in public. Some people think when we talk about contraception that itÃ¢â¬â¢s code for abortion. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s obviously not the same thing. LetÃ¢â¬â¢s be honest, people are just uncomfortable with the topic because itÃ¢â¬â¢s about sex. And sex talk in this country is kept on the hush even though we are sold sex via advertising left and right. Some people worry
Friday, May 8, 2020
The cinema is one of the most unique forms of media because it has the ability to make a fictional story socially powerful. The simplest of elements in a film are able to change how the audience interprets a scene and give it a deeper meaning. In Spike LeeÃ¢â¬â¢s 1989 film, Do the Right Thing, many small elements come together to impact individual scenes as a whole. This controversial film illustrates a single day of rising events in a black neighborhood. It shows the frustration of the African-American population in how they are treated and how it triggers their own reactions. The story line comments on other racial stereotypes as well, including Hispanics, Koreans, Italians, and Caucasians. A powerful scene in the film is one involving the character Radio Raheem, a mysteriously quiet black character known in the film to use a more hostile approach for equality. In this scene, he tells the main character Mookie a tale of the personified relationship of love and hate. There are many components of the Love and Hate scene in Do the Right Thing that are important when analyzing the sequence as a whole. One of the most prominent aspects is the camera angle and cinematography. The scene itself is one long takeÃ¢â¬â meaning there are no cuts in the scene which is over a minute and a half. This in itself is significant because it forces the viewerÃ¢â¬â¢s attention with no breaks. It shows that Radio RaheemÃ¢â¬â¢s story is forward and needs to be listened to without hesitation. His story personifiesShow MoreRelatedDo The Right Thing : Movie Analysis967 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThroughout the film Do the Right Thing, we continuously observe racial conflict that builds up to such an extreme point that it leads to a fight for power. This movie portrays the struggles and realities of a neighborhood with white and black African American people. This can be seen in many instances for example when Buggin Out, Radio Raheem, and Smiley march into Sal s and de mand that Sal change the Wall of Fame. Another vital instance shows the height of power struggle. It is when the hugeRead MoreDo The Right Thing - Movie Analysis1689 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesSpike LeeÃ¢â¬â¢s movie Ã¢â¬Å"Do the Right ThingÃ¢â¬ portrays a time in American history when the post-civil rights movement was still fresh in everyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s mind. It is 1989, and Martin Luther King Jr and Malcolm X have placed their stamp on the country. While MLK preached for peace, Malcom X wanted the people to fight back in self-defense. This movie portrays these two views side by side through several different scenes. The movie is set in the black community of Bedford-Stuyevesant on the hottest day of theRead MoreMovie Analysis : Do The Right Thing 976 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesHancong Jiang Identification in the Cinema Draft 4 04.15.2015 Racial identification in Do the Right Thing Do the Right Things begins with the Rosie Perez dancing scene with the music Ã¢â¬Å"fight the powerÃ¢â¬ . The four minutes scene shadows the later plot of the film, in which the continuously changing of the outfits and the intensified movement of the dancer may imply how the tension between different racial identification increases. Both the color and the movements of the dancer have strong visual impactRead MoreAnalysis Of The Movie Do The Right Thing Essay1329 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Do the Right Thing Cameron Hughes Expository Writing 9/30/2016 Introduction In Spike Lee s Do the Right Thing, the story takes places in 1989, another year in the long struggle for equality for African-Americans. The film portrays the racial tensions between locals of the neighborhood and an Italian-American family in the majority Black and Hispanic neighborhood of Bedford-Stuyvesant (Bed-Stuy) in Brooklyn, New York. Spike Lee shows us what a day in the life of the Brooklyn neighborhoodRead More Analysis of the Spike Lees Movie Do the Right Thing Essay533 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pages Analysis of the Spike Lees Movie Do the Right Thing For my shot analysis I chose a shot from the Spike Lee Movie Do the Right Thing. This is the second shot following the climactic riot scene. It features DaÃ¢â¬â¢ Mayor and Mother Sister reacting to the hellacious events of the previous night. The block was just devastated by a melee that broke out because the police killed Radio Raheem after he and Sal got in an altercation that was triggered by the volume of Radio RaheemÃ¢â¬â¢s boom box. Though at aRead MoreArundel Partners Case Analysis Essay1441 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesspootyhead Apr 17, 2007 Arundel Partners Case Analysis ----------------------------------- Arundel Partners Case Analysis Executive Summary: A group of investors (Arundel group) is looking into the idea of purchasing the sequel rights associated with films produced by one or more major movie studios. Movie rights are to be purchased prior to films being made. Arundel wants to come up with a decision to either purchase all the sequel rights for a studios entire production during a specifiedRead MoreArundel Partners Case Analysis Essay1499 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesArundel Partners Case Analysis Executive Summary: A group of investors (Arundel group) is looking into the idea of purchasing the sequel rights associated with films produced by one or more major movie studios. Movie rights are to be purchased prior to films being made. Arundel wants to come up with a decision to either purchase all the sequel rights for a studios entire production during a specified period of time or purchase a specified number of major films. Arundels profitabilityRead MoreSolutions to Arundel Partners Case1450 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesthe idea of purchasing the sequel rights associated with films produced by one or more major movie studios. Movie rights are to be purchased prior to films being made. Arundel wants to come up with a decision to either purchase all the sequel rights for a studios entire production during a specified period of time or purchase a specified number of major films. Arundels profitability is dependent upon the price it pays for a portfolio of sequel rights. Our analysis of Arundels propos al includes aRead MoreAnalysis Of The Movie Arundel Partners 779 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesArundel Partners wants to buy the rights to produce the sequels in advance rather than negotiating on a film-by-film basis because otherwise, the studios will have an informational advantage. Later on in the production process, studios will have a greater idea of the quality of the film, making them less likely to sell the rights to more profitable sequels. Advanced rights to the entire portfolio of films mitigates this informational asymmetry and creates an options-pricing model for Arundel. ThereRead MoreAnalysis Of Divergent The Movie 1197 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAnalysis of Divergent The movie Divergent can be interpreted and looked into deeply to discover the missing and hidden features within the film. Throughout the movie, there are many twists and turns. It takes the viewers on a journey. The movie is easy to understand with what is going on, but at times the plot is about mystery. When viewers go to the theater to watch the film, they tend to miss the hidden features of the movie. They only tend to focus on certain points, and by paying greater attention
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
You may encounter business situations that require using an interpreter (for spoken communication) or a translator (for written communication). Interpreters and translators can be expensive, but skilled professionals provide Invaluable assistance for communicating in other cultural contexts. 60 Keeping up with current language usage in a given country or culture is also critical in order to avoid embarrassing blunders. We will write a custom essay sample on Knucklehead competitors or any similar topic only for you Order Now For example, the marketing agency Landlord Associates usually engages three native-language speakers to review translated materials to make sure the ensue of the message is compatible with current usage and slang in a given country. 61 Some companies use back-translation to ensure accuracy. Once a translator encodes a message Into another language, a dif rent translator retranslate the same message into the original language. The is back-translation is then compared with the original message to discover any errors or discrepancies. The e time and cost required for professional translation has encouraged the development of machine translation , any form of computerized intelligence used to translate one language to another. Dedicated soft ware tools and online services such as Worldly ( www. Worldly. Com ) off ere various forms of automated translation. Major search engines let you request translated versions of the websites you FL ND. Although none of these tools can translate as well as human translators, they can be quite useful with individual words and short phrases, and they can oft en give you the overall gist of a message. Everyone can contribute to successful intercultural communication. Whether a younger person Is unaccustomed to the formalities of a large corporation or a league from another country Is working on a team with you, look for opportunities to help people if t in and adapt their communication style. For example, if a nonnative English speaker is making mistakes that could hurt his or her credibility, you can off ere advice on the appropriate words and phrases to use. Most language learners truly appreciate this sort of assistance, as long as it is off red in a respectful manner. Moreover, chances are that while youÃ¢â¬â¢re helping, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll learn something about the other personÃ¢â¬â¢s culture and language, too. You can also take steps to simplify the immunization process. For instance, oral communication in a second language is usually more differ cult than written forms of communication, so instead of asking a foreign colleague to provide information in a conference call, you could ask for a written response instead of or in addition to the live conversation. For a brief summary of ideas to Improve intercultural communication in the workplace, see Ã¢â¬Å"Checklist: Improving Intercultural Communication Skills. Ã¢â¬ For additional Information on communicating Intercultural Communication: Speaking with Multiple- Language Audiences; Media Skills: Podiatrist [LO-5] , Chapter 7 Your company was one of the FL rest to use podiatrist as a business communication tool. Executives frequently and post them on the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s intranet site; employees from the 14 off cues in Europe, Asia, and North America then download the FL less to their music players or other devices and listen to the messages while riding the train to work, eating lunch at their desks, and so on. Your boss asks you to draft the opening statement for a potash that will announce a revenue drop caused by intensive competitive pressure. She reviews your script and hands it back with a gentle explanation that it needs to be revised for international listeners. Improve the following statement in as many ways as you can: Howdy, comrades. ShouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t surprise anyone that we took a beating this year, given the insane pricing moves our have been making. I mean, how those clowns can keep turning a proof t is beyond me, what with steel costs still going through the roof and labor costs heating up-?even in countries where everybody goes to FL ND cheap labor-?and hazardous waste disposal ergs adding to operating costs, too. How to cite Knucklehead competitors, Papers
Tuesday, April 28, 2020
Pepsico pepsico 1. Introduction: 1 What is PEPSICO? 1 Brief History of PEPSICO 1 Business Segments 1 Frito-Lay 1 Pepsi-Cola Company 2 Tropicana 3 2. Company Analysis: 4 External Analysis 4 PEST Analysis: 4 Porter's Diamond: 5 Five Forces 8 Internal Analysis 9 Porter's Value Chain 9 Boston Consulting Group 12 Financial Analysis 13 SWOT 14 Strength 14 Weakness 14 Opportunities 14 Threats 15 3. Conclusions 15 Marketing 15 General 15 4. Recommendations 16 Bibliography 17 Appendix 17 Appendix I 17 Appendix II 17 Appendix III 17 Appendix IV 17 Appendix V 17 Appendix VI 17 1. Introduction: What is PEPSICO? PepsiCo is one of the most successful beverage and snack food business in the world. The company consist of: Frito Lay Co., Pepsi-Cola Co., and Tropicana Products. Brief History of PEPSICO PepsiCo was funded in 1965 by Donald M. Kendall Pepsi-Cola president, and Herman W. Lay, president of Frito-Lay. Caleb Bradham, a New Bern, N.C. pharmacist, created pepsi-Cola in 1890. Frito-Lay, Inc. was formed by the 1961 merger of the Frito Company, founded by Elmer Doolin in 1932, and the H. W. Lay Company, founded by Herman W. Lay, also in 1932. In 1998 PepsiCo acquires Tropicana Products from Seagram Company Ltd. Anthony Rossi founded Tropicana in 1947. Business Segments Frito-Lay Frito-Lay, Inc was funded in 1961, by merging of The Frito Company and H.W. Lay Company. Today, Frito-Lay brands account for 40% of the world, snack chip industry, and 56% of the U.S. industry. Often, Frito-Lay Company products are known by local names (Matutano in Spain, Walkers in the United Kingdom and others.) Major Frito-Lay Company products: - Lay's Potato Chips - Baked Lay's Potato Chips - Ruffles Potato Chips - Doritos Tortilla Chips - Tostitos Tortilla Chips - Baked Tostitos - Santitas Tortilla Chips - Fritos Corn Chips - Cheetos Cheese Flavoured Snacks - Rold Gold Pretzels - Funyons Onion Flavoured Rings - Sun chips Multigrain Snacks - Cracker Jacks - Chester's Popcorn - Grandma's Cookies - Munchos Potato Chips - Smart food Popcorn - Baken-ets Fried Pork Skins - Frito-Lay Dips & Salsa - Sabritas Potato Chips - 3D's - Smiths Potato Crisps - Walkers Potato Crisps Pepsi-Cola Company Caleb Bradham founded pepsi-Cola in 1890. Brand Pepsi and other Pepsi-Cola products account for nearly one-third of total soft drink sales in the United States, a consumer market totalling about $58 billion. Outside the United States, Pepsi-Cola beverages are available in about 160 countries. Today Pepsi-Cola products account for about a quarter of all soft drinks sold internationally. The company has also established operations in the emerging markets of the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia and Russia, where Pepsi-Cola was the first U.S. consumer product to be marketed. Pepsi-Cola provides advertising, marketing, sales and promotional support to Pepsi-Cola bottlers and food service customers. This includes some of the world's best and most recognized advertising. New advertising and exciting promotions keep Pepsi-Cola brands young. Pepsi-Cola Company products: - Pepsi-Cola - Diet Pepsi - Pepsi One - Mountain Dew - Slice - Mug Root Beer - Mug Cr?me - All Sport - Lipton Teas (Partnership) - Aquafina Water - Frappuccino Coffee Drink - Mirinda - 7UP (outside the U.S. only) - Fruit Works - Pepsi Max Tropicana Anthony Rossi founded Tropicana in 1947. The company entered the concentrate orange juice business in 1949, registering Tropicana as a tr ademark. In 1954 Rossi pioneered a pasteurisation process for orange juice. For the first time, consumers could enjoy the taste of pure not-from-concentrate 100% Florida orange juice in a ready-to-serve package. The company went public in 1957, was purchased by Beatrice Foods Co. in 1978, acquired by Kohlberg Kravis & Roberts in 1986 and sold to The Seagram Company Ltd. in 1988. Seagram purchased the Dole global juice business in 1995. PepsiCo acquired Tropicana, including the Dole juice business, in August 1998. Today, Tropicana is the world's largest marketer and producer of branded juices with products available in 50 countries worldwide. Tropicana products: - Tropicana Pure Premium - Tropicana Season's Best - Dole Juices - Tropicana Twister. - Hitchcock - Looza - Copella. 2. Company Analysis: External Analysis PEST Analysis: The Pest Analysis identifies the political, economical, social a technological influences on an organization.
Thursday, March 19, 2020
Huntington Disease Essays Huntington Disease Essay Huntington Disease Essay Huntington Disease Huntington disease ( HD ) is an autosomal-dominant upset, characterized as disease of progressive encephalon devolution in late maturity with subsequent encephalon wasting. The affected countries of devolution are the basal ganglia, which play an of import function in the control of motion. This devolution causes assorted motor jobs such as behavioural abnormalcy, chorea, incoordination and dystonia ( Folstein, 1989 ) . George Huntington was the first adult male that described HD in the nineteenth century in item particularly its familial nature of chorea ( Huntington, 1872 ) . New findings have shown that HD involves the mutant protein huntigtin. This protein is translated from a CAG repetition organizing a polyglutamine strand of variable length at the N-terminus. The molecular mechanism of HD is non to the full understood but new findings utilizing carnal theoretical accounts have provided valuable information. The cistron associated with HD is termed the HD cistron and can be found on the short arm of chromosome four. As the disease is autosomal dominant, merely one HD cistron is sufficient to do the upset. The HD cistron is composed of a trinucleotide CAG repeats.The allelomorphs of the HD cistron are grouped as normal, intermediate or HD-causing. Each group has a characteristic figure of CAG repetitions. The normal allelomorphs have 26 or fewer CAG repetitions whereas intermediate allelomorphs have 27-35 CAG repetitions ( Potter et al. , 2004 ) . Carriers of normal allelomorphs and intermediate allelomorphs are non at hazard of developing HD. However, persons with intermediate allelomorphs are at hazard of giving birth to a kid with an allelomorph of HD-causing characteristic ( Semaka et al. , 2006 ) . Thus, intermediate allelomorphs are besides termed changeable allelomorphs as they may mutate to do HD phenotype in the progeny. The ground for the mutant lies in the instability of the re production. The longer the figure of trinucleotides, the greater the instability. In 73 % of the instances, the instability leads to an enlargement of the trinucleotide repetitions and therefore an addition in the hazard of developing HD whereas merely 23 % show a contraction of the figure of repetitions associated with a low hazard of developing HD ( Chattapadhyay et al. , 2005 ; Djousse et al.,2004, MacDonald et al. , 1999 ) . HD-causing allelomorphs normally contain 36 or more CAG repetitions and present the bearer at an increased hazard of developing HD. HD-causing allelomorphs have been categorized into two groups: Reduced-penetrance HD-causing allelomorphs and Full-penetrance HD-causing allelomorphs. Reduced-penetrance or uncomplete HD-causing allelomorphs are composed of 36-39 trinucleotide CAG repetitions ( Rubinsztein, 2003 ; Rubinsztein et al. , 1996 ; McNeil et al. , 1997 ) . Carriers of this allelomorph may be symptomless and non demo the symptoms. On the other manus, full-penetrance HD-causing allelomorphs are characterized by 40 or more CAG repetitions and bearers of this allelomorph have a high chance of developing HD ( Rubinsztein et al. , 1996 ; McNeil et al. , 1997 ; Langebehn et al. , 2004 ) . The instability of the trinucleotide repeats occurs more frequently in males ( spermatogenesis ) than in females ( oogenesis ) . This phenomenon can besides be observed in the progeny with paternal heritage of the HD cistron where the oncoming of HD is more powerful and occurs in the early young person. In add-on, households with no history of HD may develop HD via new mutants originating by the elaboration of trinucleotide CAG repetitions and most of these new mutants come from the paternal side ( Anca et al. , 2004 ; Squitieri et al. , 2003 ) . Bodily instability of CAG repetitions can besides originate and hold been observed in human existences every bit good as animate being theoretical accounts. Furthermore, indistinguishable twins demonstrate different clinical syndromes and have about a similar age of oncoming. Twins that are bearers of homozygous allelomorphs have no difference in the age of oncoming ( Georgiou et al. , 1999 ) . Carriers of the HD allelomorph are clinically healthy before the oncoming of the HD disease symptoms. However, in the so called preclinical stage, there are little alterations happening in motor accomplishments, knowledge and personality ( Walker, 2007 ) . The oncoming of HD disease symptoms normally occurs in the average age of oncoming which is 35 to 44 old ages ( Bates et al. , 2002 ) . In 66 % , initial symptoms are abnormalcies in the neurological map or psychiatric alterations. Other symptoms are minor involountary motions, trouble in mental planning, depression and little alterations in the oculus motion. In 25 % of HD bearers, the visual aspect of initial symptoms such as chorea, dysphagia and pace perturbation is delayed until after 50 old ages with the disease symptoms taking a more drawn-out and soft class. At the same clip, the life style of the affected persons does non alter and they can still go on with their current employment. The initial oncoming of the symptoms is followed by an increased diagnostic chorea, trouble in commanding voluntary motion every bit good as aggravation of dysarthria and dysphagia. As a consequence of the deterioration symptoms, the affected persons must go forth employment and may necessitate extra aid to get by with some activities in their day-to-day life. The concluding phase of HD demonstrates terrible motor disablement. The symptoms have worsened so much that so that the bearers can non cover with their damage at all and necessitate the aid of other people. The bearers are tongueless and incontinent and demo a average endurance clip of 15 to 18 old ages after the first oncoming of HD related symptoms. The life anticipation is suggested to be at 54 to 55 old ages ( Harper, 2005 ) . The diagnosing of HD is based on mutant analysis. For this intent, PCR based methods can be utilised which musca volitanss alleles up to about 115 CAG repetitions. Likewise, southern smudge is employed for allelomorphs with more than 115 CAG ( Potter et al. , 2004 ) . Such big enlargements are linked with juvenile-onset of HD triggered by homozygous HD genotypes. Moderate-to-severe Huntington s disease illustrate larger frontal horns of the sidelong ventricles and lack in striatal volume when modus operandi MRI and CT scans are performed ( Stober et al. , 1984 ) . However, scans are non helpful for the diagnosing of early upset. Functional MRI surveies and informations from PET have displayed that affected encephalons started to change before the oncoming of symptoms ( Kunig et al. , 2000, Paulsen et al. , 2004 ) . Using these techniques, it is possible to acknowledge caudate wasting every bit easrly as 11 old ages before the expected oncoming of the disease, and it is possible to re cognze putaminal wasting 9 old ages before the expected oncoming ( Aylward et al. , 2004 ) . Tensor-based magnetic resonance morphometry demonstrates increasing loss of striatal loss in persons who are preclinical transporting the HD cistron and do non demo grounds of progresson by clinical or neuropsychological trials over 2 old ages ( Kipps et al. , 2005 ) . Familial proving for HD is merely considered by 5 % of HD hazard bearers due to household planning and employment. Many HD hazard bearers do non undergo proving as there is no efficient intervention for HD available ( Laccone et al. , 1999 ) . Furthermore, prognostic testing can hold psychological effects for HD hazard bearers taking to suicide due to mental depression ( Almqvist et al. , 2003 ) . Therefore, it is important to place self-destructive forms in immature HD hazard bearers and give pretest guidance. Epidemiologic surveies suggest that HD is most prevailing in the white Caucasic population with 5-7 people affected per 100000. There are besides exclusions in countries where the full population is derived from a few laminitiss such as in Lake Maracaibo in Venezuela or Tasmania ( Pridmore, 1990 ) . Across most of Asia and Africa the incidences of HD are much lower. The ground for the assorted distribution of HD incidence lies in the CAG repetitions. White Caucasians have a much higher frequence of HD allelomorphs that are composed of 28-35 CAG repetitions ( Kremer, 2002 ; Harper A ; Jones, 2002 ) . The high frequence of this HD alleles in the white population is non to the full understood. The HD cistron may give a wellness benefit as in other familial upsets such as reaping hook cell trait. It is thought that the HD cistron is associated with a lower hazard of developing malignant neoplastic disease, perchance due to the upregulation of TP53 in HD disease ( Bae et al. , 2005 ; DiF iglia etal. , 1995 ) . The pathogenesis of HD affecting the protein huntingtin is ill understood. Even though orthologs of that protein have been detected in zebrafish, drosophilia and sludge molds, the function of the protein is still unknown ( Jones, 2002 ) . Huntingtin has a high laterality in all human cells. Most of it is expressed in the encephalon and testicles whereas bosom, lungs and liver show moderate sums of it ( DiFiglia et al.,1995 ) . One hypothesis suggests that happloinsufficiency plays an indispensable function in the pathogenesis of HD. This would intend that deficient sums of huntingtin protein are generated for the cells to work decently ( Ambrose et al.,1994 ) . However, this hypothesis besides have been refuted by other findings which suggest that a lack of HD cistron in adult male does non do HD in adult male ( Rubinsztein, 2003 ; Ambrose et al. , 1994 ) . This is besides supported by transgenic mouse theoretical accounts. One allelomorph of the HD cistron does non do HD in transgenic mouse theoretical accounts and complete absence of the HD cistron is linked to mortality in mouse embryos ( Squitieri et al. , 2003 ) . Therefore, new findings explain the pathogenesis of HD as a toxic addition of map derived from the mutant HD cistron. Likewise, this phenomenon can besides be observed in other familial diseases such as muscular wasting or dentatorubropallidoluysian ( Ambrose et al. , 1994 ; Andrew et al. , 1993 ) . There is non sufficient grounds to back up the claim of happloinsufficiency in any of these familial disease but an accretion of polyglutamines with subsequent neurodegeneration. This is farther supported by the relationship betwe en length of polyglutamine repetition and age of oncoming. Longer polyglutamine repetition ironss are associated with more aggressive patterned advance of HD disease symptoms and the juvenile oncoming of HD ( Mahant et al. , 2003 ; Squitieri et al. , 2002 ; Forproud et al. , 1999 ) . The biological construction of polyglutamine gives more insight into the toxic addition of map in HD. Experiments performed in vitro show that polyglutamine sums by organizing dimmers, trimers and oligomers. For this collection to be efficient, a minimal figure of 37 glutamine residues in sequence is required. The rate of collection additions as more glutamine repetitions are added to the long concatenation of glutamine polypeptide. This in vitro observation may be an explaination why some persons experience late oncoming of HD while others have a juvenile oncoming of HD. Some cardinal points have been discovered in the mechanism explicating how aggregative polyglutamine leads to neural disfunction. The mutant huntingtin protein is more prone to proteleolysis than its wild type opposite number. This higher hazard of protein debasement creates truncated proteins, which lead to the formation of sums of abbreviated huntingtin. Additionally, shorter glutamine repetitions are less likely to organize steric clangs than longer 1s. It is believed that these sums are toxic and locate in the cell nucleus. ( Saudou et al. , 1998 ; Peter et al. , 1999 ; Wellington et al. , 2000 ) . Finally, the rate of collection overcomes the rate at which proteosomes or autophagic vacuolisation degrade the proteins in the cell. This farther exacerbates the formation of aggregative protein in concurrence with the ability of sums to enroll normal organic structure proteins to their matrix. Examples of normal organic structure proteins are those proteins that interact with the wil d type signifier of huntingtin straight ( Mills et al. , 2005 ) . Some documents besides propose that the protein huntingtin may exercise non merely a toxic addition of map but besides a dominant negative consequence on the typical map of the wild type protein huntingtin. This manner, mutant huntingtin could interfere with proteins that regulate written text, programmed cell death, tumour suppression or axonal conveyance ( Bae et al. , 2005 ; Busch et al. , 2003 ; Charrin et al. , 2005 ; Gauthier et al. , 2004, Hickey A ; Chesselet, 2003 ) . Last, one other hypothesis provinces that mutant huntingtin may interfere in neuron-neuron interaction. This has been illustrated in mice where the mutant protein huntingtin disrupts the axonal conveyance and cyst release of neurotrophic factor in nerve cells taking to intrinsic disfunction of striatal nerve cells ( Pulst et al. , 1996 ; Komure et al. , 1995 ) . Mentions Almqvist EW, Brinkman RR, Wiggins S, Hayden MR. Psychological effects and forecasters of inauspicious events in the fi rst 5 old ages after prognostic testing for Huntington s disease. Clin Genet 2003 ; 64: 300-09. Ambrose CM, Duyao MP, Barnes G, et Al. Structure and look of the Huntington s disease cistron: grounds against simple inactivation due to spread out CAG repetition. Somat Cell Mol Genet 1994 ; 20: 27-38. Anca MH, Gazit E, Lowewenthal R, Ostrovsky O, Frydman M, Giladi N. Diff erent phenotypic look in monozygotic twins with Huntington disease. Am J Med Genet 2004 ; 124: 89-91. Andrew SE, Goldberg YP, Kremer B, et Al. The relationship between trinucleotide ( CAG ) repetition length and clinical characteristics of Huntington s disease. Nat Genet 1993 ; 4: 398-403. Aylward EH, Sparks BF, Field KM, et Al. Onset and rate of striatal wasting in presymptomatic Huntington disease. Neurology 2004 ; 63: 66-72. Bae BI, Xu H, Igarashi S, et Al. P53 mediates cellular disfunction and behavioural abnormalcies in Huntington s disease. Neuron 2005 ; 47:29-41. Bates G, Harper P, Jones L ( 2002 ) Huntington s Disease. Oxford University Press, New York. Busch A, Engemann S, Lurz R, et Al. Mutant huntingtin promotes the fibrillogenesis of wild-type huntingtin: a possible mechanism for loss of huntingtin map in Huntington s disease. J Biol Chem 2003 ; 278: 41452-61. Charrin BC, Saudou F, Humbert S. Axonal conveyance failure in neurogenerative upsets: the instance of Huntington s disease. Pathol Biol 2005 ; 53: 189-92. Chattapadhyay B, Baksi K, Mukhopadhyay S, Bhattacharyya NP. Transition of age at oncoming of Huntington s disease patients by fluctuations in TP53 and human caspase activated DNase ( hCAD ) cistrons. Neurosci Lett 2005 ; 374: 81-86. DiFiglia M, Sapp E, Chase K, et Al. Huntingtin is a cytoplasmatic protein association with cysts in human and rat encephalon nerve cells. Neuron 1995 ; 14: 1075-81. Djousse L, Knowlton B, Hayden MR, et Al. Evidence for a qualifier of onset age in Huntington disease linked to the HD cistron in 4p16. Neurogenetics 2004 ; 5: 109-14. Foroud T, Gray J, Ivashina J, Conneally PM. Differences in continuance of Huntington s disease based on age at oncoming. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1999 ; 66: 52-56. Folstein S. Huntington s disease: a upset of households. Old line state: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1989. Gauthier LR, Charrin BC, Borrell-Pages M, et Al. Huntingtin controls neurotrophic support and endurance of nerve cells by heightening BDNF vesicular conveyance along microtubules. Cell 2004 ; 118: 127-38. Georgiou N, Bradshaw JL, Chiu E, Tudor A, OGorman L, Phillips JG. Diff erential clinical and motor control map in a brace of monozygotic twins with Huntington s disease. Mov Disord 1999 ; 14:320-25. Harper PS, Jones L. Huntington s disease: familial and molecular surveies. In: Bates G, Harper P, Jones L, eds. Huntington s disease. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002: 113-58. Harper B.Huntington disease.J R Soc Med.2005 ; 98:550. Hickey MA, Chesselet MF. Apoptosis in Huntington s disease. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2003 ; 27: 256-65. Huntington G. On chorea. Med Surg Rep 1872 ; 26: 317-21 Kipps CM, Duggins AJ, Mahant N, Gomes L, Ashburner J, McCusker EA. Progression of structural neuropathology in presymptomatic Huntington s disease: a tensor based morphometry survey. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2005 ; 76: 650-55. Kunig G, Leenders KL, Sanchez-Pernaute R, et Al. Benzodiazepine receptor binding in Huntington s disease: [ 11C ] Florida umazenil consumption measured utilizing antielectron emanation imaging. Ann Neurol 2000 ; 47: 644-48. Kremer B. Clinical neurology of Huntington s disease. In: Bates G, Harper P, Jones L, eds. Huntington s disease. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002: 3-27. Komure O, Sano A, Nishino N, et Al. Deoxyribonucleic acid analysis in familial dentatorubral-pallidoluysian wasting: correlativity between CAG repetition length and phenotypic fluctuation and the molecular footing of expectancy. Neurology 1995 ; 45: 143-49. Jones L. The cell biological science of Huntington s disease. In: Bates G, Harper P, Jones L, eds. Huntington s disease. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002: 348-62. Laccone F, Engel U, Holinski-Feder E, et Al. DNA analysis of Huntington s disease: fi ve old ages experience in Germany, Australia, and Switzerland. Neurology 1999 ; 53: 801-06. Langbehn DR, Brinkman RR, Falush D, Paulsen JS, Hayden MR.A new theoretical account for anticipation of the age of oncoming and penetrance for Huntington s disease based on CAG length.Clin Genet.2004 ; 65:267-77. MacDonald ME, Vonsattel JP, Shrinidhi J, et Al. Evidence for the GluR6 cistron associated with younger oncoming of Huntington s disease. Neurology 1999 ; 53: 1330-32 Mahant N, McCusker EA, Byth K, Graham S. Huntington s disease: clinical correlatives of disablement and patterned advance. Neurology 2003 ; 61:1085-92. McNeil SM, Novelletto A, Srinidhi J, Barnes G, Kornbluth I, Altherr MR, Wasmuth JJ, Gusella JF, MacDonald ME, Myers RH.Reduced penetrance of the Huntington s disease mutation.Hum Mol Genet.1997 ; 6:775-9. Mills IG, Gaughan L, Robson C, et Al. Huntingtin interacting protein 1 modulates the transcriptional activity of atomic endocrine receptors. J Cell Biol 2005 ; 170: 191-200. Paulsen JS, Zimbelman JL, Hinton SC, et Al. fMRI biomarker of early neural disfunction in preclinical Huntington s disease. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2004 ; 25: 1715-21. Peter MF, Nucifora FC Jr, Kushi J, et Al. Nuclear targeting of mutant Huntingtin increases toxicity. Mol Cell Neurosci 1999 ; 14: 121-81. Potter NT, Spector EB, Prior TW.Technical criterions and guidelines for Huntington disease testing.Genet Med.2004 ; 6:61-5. Pridmore SA. The big Huntington s disease household of Tasmania.Med J Aust 1990 ; 153: 593-95. Pulst SM, Nechiporuk A, Nechiporuk T, et Al. Moderate enlargement of a usually biallelic trinucelotide repetition in spinocerebellar ataxy type 2. Nat Genetics 1996 ; 14: 237-38. Rubinsztein DC. Molecular biological science of Huntington s disease ( HD ) and HD-like upsets. In: Pulst S, erectile dysfunction. Geneticss of motion upsets. California: Academic Press, 2003: 365-77. Rubinsztein DC, Leggo J, Coles R, Almqvist E, Biancalana V, Cassiman JJ, Chotai K, Connarty M, Crauford D, Curtis A, Curtis D, Davidson MJ, Differ AM, Dode C, Dodge A, Frontali M, Ranen NG, Stine OC, Sherr M, Abbott MH, Franz ML, Graham CA, Harper PS, Hedreen JC, Hayden MR.et al.Phenotypic word picture of persons with 30-40 CAG repetitions in the Huntington disease ( HD ) cistron reveals HD instances with 36 repetitions and seemingly normal aged persons with 36-39 repeats.Am J Hum Genet.1996 ; 59:16-22. Rubinsztein DC. Molecular biological science of Huntington s disease ( HD ) and HD-like upsets. In: Pulst S, erectile dysfunction. Geneticss of motion upsets. California: Academic Press, 2003: 365-77. Rubinsztein DC, Leggo J, Coles R, et Al. Phenotypic word picture of persons with 30-40 CAG repetitions in the Huntington disease ( HD ) cistron reveals HD instances with 36 repetitions and seemingly normal aged persons with 36-39 repetitions. Am J Hum Genet 1996 ; 59:16-22. Saudou F, Finkbeiner S, Devys D, Greenberg ME. Huntingtin acts in the karyon to bring on programmed cell death but decease does non correlate with the formation of intranuclear inclusions. Cell 1998 ; 95: 55-56. Squitieri F, Cannella M, Simonelli M. CAG mutant eff ect on rate of patterned advance in Huntington s disease. Neurol Sci 2002 ; 23 ( suppl 2 ) : S107-08. Squitieri F, Gellera C, Cannella M, et Al. Homozygosity for CAG mutant in Huntington s disease is associated with a more terrible clinical class. Brain 2003 ; 126: 946-55. Stober T, Wussow W, Schimrigk K. Bicaudate diameter: the most specifi degree Celsius and simple CT parametric quantity in the diagnosing of Huntington s disease. Neuroradiology 1984 ; 26: 25-28. OHearn E, Holmes SE, Calvert PC, et Al. SCA-12: shudder with cerebellar and cortical wasting is associated with a CAG repetition enlargement. Neurology 2001 ; 56: 299-303. Walker FO.Huntington s disease.Lancet.2007 ; 369:218-28. Wellington CL, Leavitt BR, Hayden MR. Huntington disease: new penetrations on the function of huntingtin cleavage. J Neural Transm Suppl 2000 ; 58: 1-17.
Tuesday, March 3, 2020
Abraham Maslow Quotes About Psychology Abraham Maslow was a psychologist and the founder of the school of thought known as humanistic psychology. Perhaps best remembered for his famous needs hierarchy, he believed in the basic goodness of people and was interested in topics such as peak experiences, positivity, and human potential. In addition to his work as a teacher and researcher, Maslow also published several popular works including Toward a Psychology of Being and Motivation and Personality. The following are just a few selected quotations from his published works: On Human Nature When people appear to be something other than good and decent, it is only because they are reacting to stress, pain, or the deprivation of basic human needs such as security, love, and self-esteem.(Toward a Psychology of Being, 1968)Getting used to our blessings is one of the most important nonevil generators of human evil, tragedy, and suffering.(Motivation and Personality, 1954)It seems that the necessary thing to do is not to fear mistakes, to plunge in, to do the best that one can, hoping to learn enough from blunders to correct them eventually.(Motivation and Personality, 1954)I suppose it is tempting, if the only tool you have is a hammer, to treat everything as if it were a nail.(The Psychology of Science: A Reconnaissance, 1966) On Self-Actualization Self-actualizing people have a deep feeling of identification, sympathy, and affection for human beings in general. They feel kinship and connection as if all people were members of a single family.(Motivation and Personality, 1954)Self-actualizing persons contact with reality is simply more direct. And along with this unfiltered, unmediated directness of their contact with reality comes also a vastly heightened ability to appreciate again and again, freshly and naively, the basic goods of life, with awe, pleasure, wonder, and even ecstasy, however, stale those experiences may have become for others.(Toward a Psychology of Being, 1968)Something of the sort has already been described for the self-actualizing person. Everything now comes of its own accord, pouring out, without will, effortlessly, purposelessly. He acts now totally and without deficiency, not homeostatically or need-reductively, not to avoid pain or displeasure or death, not for the sake of a goal further on in the futu re, not for any end other than itself. His behavior and experience become per se, and self-validating, end-behavior and end-experience, rather than means-behavior or means-experience.(Toward a Psychology of Being, 1968) Musicians must make music, artists must paint, poets must write if they are to be ultimately at peace with themselves. What human beings can be, they must be. They must be true to their own nature. This need we may call self-actualization.(Motivation and Personality, 1954) On Love I may say that (Being) love, in a profound but testable sense, creates the partner. it gives him a self-image, it gives him self-acceptance, a feeling of love-worthiness, all of which permit him to grow. It is a real question whether the full development of the human being is possible without it.(Toward a Psychology Being, 1968) On Peak Experiences The person in peak-experiences feels himself, more than other times, to be the responsible, active, creating center of his activities and of his perceptions. He feels more like a prime-mover, more self-determined (rather than caused, determined, helpless, dependent, passive, weak, bossed). He feels himself to be his own boss, fully responsible, fully volitional, with more free-will than at other times, master of his fate, an agent.(Toward a Psychology of Being, 1968Expression and communication in the peakÃ¢â¬âexperiences tend often to become poetic, mythical, and rhapsodic as if this were the natural kind of language to express such states of being.(Toward a Psychology of Being, 1968) You can learn more about Abraham Maslow by reading this brief biography of his life, further explore his hierarchy of needsÃ and his concept of self-actualization. Source: Maslow, A. Motivation and Personality. 1954.Ã Maslow, A. The Psychology of Renaissance. 1966.Ã Maslow, A. Towards a Psychology of Being. 1968.
Sunday, February 16, 2020
Operations management - Essay Example which attempted to retain market leadership by focussing solely on improvement of operational effectiveness without paying adequate attention to the overall business strategy of brand positioning and other very important human resource issues as job satisfaction, aggressiveness, motivation, performance, trust and commitment. Both made the same mistake of forgetting the broader perspective and tried to tackle an economic and marketing issue in isolation. It was only natural that both the attempts ended in failure. There were several different types of issues that had to be resolved as the project developed. At one end was the difficulty in transposing the theoretical knowledge acquired from study modules to the practical context of the project. At the other end was the lack of skill in identifying broad trends that generally tend to affect business mandarins all over the world. There surely is a trend-setter like Toyota, but it requires the experience of a veteran researcher to be able to identify a new trend and forecast a phenomenon that will sweep the world in days to come even when it is in its nascent stage and is being experimented and fine tuned by the trend setter. This ability to immediately spot an idea that would shape tomorrowÃ¢â¬â¢s business and commerce can only be acquired through years of patient research and, quite obviously, is not visible in the current project. At this stage, it must be admitted that the in-depth graphical analysis of the operational wheel of Tesco or a thorough examination of the technology and production processes adopted by Morgan car manufacturing company helped the researcher to attain that analytical frame of mind. The extensive knowledge (albeit theoretical) about not only lean but also agile supply chains that the researcher obtained by undertaking several projects on this topic made him fully realise the necessity of the decoupling point